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我這上海介紹世界最新的澳利亞黃金海岸創意文化中國城之旅: 

6月17日至20日入住華山路上海希爾頓在商務行政樓層,登記註冊的名稱

Johnson Cheuk-Fai SHIU ,

中國移動15012516229。電子郵件:johnson.shiu@ hotmail.com

http://johnsonshiu.cn
邵焯焯輝太平紳士敬請預約

我现展開籌集捐募活動 在黄金海岸用"鼎"的形狀設計一個圓形 LED

鼎作为一种重要礼器,象征着团结、统一和权威,是代表和平、发展、昌盛的吉祥物

 

作為數碼藝術文化的舞台. 這項目的捐贈和捐款舉措可黃金海岸成為一個創意產業的城市.

黃金海岸華埠201410月將建成 http://chinatowngoldcoast.com.au

"把創意變成生意, 讓智慧帶來實惠!" 厲無畏 2008 為基礎發展創意產業元素。這創意將是一個偉大的創舉和黃金海岸華埠的獨有吸引力。

參考這些設計:  

- 维基百科,自由的百科全书 - 维基百科- Wikipedia

https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-hant/
是中国古代的一种青铜器,三足或四足,两耳,通常刻有精细的纹饰。最初是一种炊具,后来因用于烹飪祭祀给神的牺牲,而上升为礼器,成为国家政權中君主、大臣 ...
  • 」的圖片搜尋結果

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ding_(vessel)
  •  - 檢舉圖片
  • 基本解释

    dǐng
    古代烹煮用的器物,一般是三足两耳:铜鼎。鼎食(列鼎而食,指豪侈生活)。鼎镬。
    锅:鼎罐。鼎锅。
    古代视为立国的重器,是政权的象征:鼎彝。九鼎。定鼎。问鼎。鼎祚(国运)。
    象征三方并立、互相对峙:鼎峙。鼎足之势。
    大:鼎族。鼎臣。鼎力支持。
    正当,正在:鼎盛(sh坣g )。

    笔画数:12;
    部首:鼎;
    笔顺编号:251115132125


    详细解释

    dǐng
    【名】
    (象形。甲骨文字形,上面的部分象鼎的左右耳及鼎腹,下面象鼎足。本义:古代烹煮用的器物)
    同本义〖tripodcaldron〗。盛行于商、周。用于煮盛物品,或置于宗庙作铭功记绩的礼器。统治者亦用作烹人的刑具
    鼎,三足两耳,和五味之宝器也。《说文》
    又如:鼎峙(比喻三方并峙,如鼎之三足);鼎铉(指鼎);鼎鼐(鼎、鼐均为古代炊具,用来调和五味。旧时用以比喻宰相治理国家)
    比喻帝王〖emperor〗。如:问鼎;定鼎中原;鼎甲(科举考试殿试名列一甲);鼎命(帝王之位);鼎业(帝王的大业)
    指宰相〖primeminister〗。如:鼎台(宰辅大臣);鼎臣(指宰相)
    喻三公、宰辅、重臣之位〖highofficial〗。如:鼎辅(三公,宰辅);鼎司(三公的职位)
    指国家〖state〗。如:鼎祚(国祚,国运);鼎运(国运)


    dǐng
    【形】
    显贵〖important〗。如:鼎臣(大臣,重臣)
    显赫,盛大〖great〗
    高门鼎贵。晋左思《吴都赋》
    又如:大名鼎鼎;鼎甲(豪门大族);鼎姓(豪族,大姓);鼎能(大才能。指能力超群,举世无匹);鼎族(巨族,豪门贵族)
    三方并立的,如鼎足分立〖tripartite〗。如:鼎分(三分)

    dǐng
    【动】
    变革〖change;reformation〗
    鼎新麾一举,革故法三章。李商隐《赠送前刘五经映》
    鼎革固天启。徐浩《谒禹庙》

    鼎铛玉石
    dǐngchēng-ysh
    〖simileoftheluxuryandwaste〗以鼎为铁锅,以玉为劣石。形容挥霍浪费奢侈腐化的生活
    鼎铛玉石,金块珠砾,弃掷迤逦。唐杜牧《阿房宫赋》
    鼎鼎
    dǐngdǐng
    〖great;beveryimportant〗盛大
    声名鼎鼎
    鼎沸
    dǐngfi
    〖noisyandconfused〗比喻吵闹、乱糟糟的样子。有如锅里的水开了一样
    义兵鼎沸,在于董卓。《后汉书王允传》
    鼎革
    dǐngg
    〖changeofdynasties〗建立新的,革除旧的。旧时多指改朝换代
    鼎力
    dǐngl
    〖yourkindhelp;yourkindefforts〗敬辞,大力(帮助)(表示请托或感谢时用)
    多蒙鼎力协助,无任感谢
    鼎盛
    dǐngshng
    〖inaperiodofgreatprosperity;attheheightofpowerandsplendour〗正当兴旺发达或强壮
    天子春秋鼎盛。《汉书贾谊传》
    鼎食
    dǐngsh
    〖extravagantandluxurious〗列鼎而食,吃饭时排列很多鼎。形容富贵人家豪华奢侈的生活
    钟鸣鼎食之家。唐王勃《滕王阁序》
    鼎新
    dǐngxīn
    〖innovate〗去旧;更新、革新
    方且言其主鼎新文物,教被华夷。陆游《入蜀记》
    去旧鼎新
    鼎峙
    dǐngzh
    〖tripartiteconfrontation;confronteachotherlikeatripodstandingonitsthreelegswithtripartitebalanceofforces〗鼎立,三方面并峙如:三峰鼎峙
    自擅江表,成鼎峙之业。《三国志孙权评传》
    鼎助
    dǐngzh
    〖greathelp〗敬辞,大力协助
    感谢鼎助之恩
    鼎足
    dǐngz
    〖threelegsofatripod-threerivalpowers〗鼎的腿,鼎有三腿。比喻三方面并立的形势
    如此则荆、吴之势强,鼎足之形成矣。《资治通鉴》
    鼎足之势
    dǐngzzhīsh
    〖asituationoftripartiteconfrontation〗形势如同鼎的足,比喻三方对立的形势
    操军破必北还,如此则荆吴之势强,鼎足之势成矣。《三国志诸葛亮传》
    亦说鼎足之形
    鼎族
    dǐngz
    〖richandaristocraticalfamily〗豪门贵族
    君当结媛鼎族,以奉蒸尝。白行简《李娃传》

    _百度百科

    baike.baidu.com/view/14015.htm轉為繁體網頁
    汉字,部首目,部外笔画7画,总笔画12画,旧字形13画,笔顺编号25111 51321 25。或部首。...
    基本信息 - ‎基本解释 - ‎详细解释 - ‎常用词组基本解释
    1 古代烹煮用的器物,一般三足两耳:铜~,~食(列鼎而食,指豪侈生活),~镬,青铜~(古代器具,用于祭祀等)
     

      

    明 陈继儒《大司马节寰袁公(袁可立)家庙记》:鼎彝俅,迎神圭璧收。
    2 锅:~罐。~锅。
    3 古代视为立国的重器,是政权的象征:~彝。九~。定~。问~。~祚(国运)。
    4 象征三方并立、互相对峙:~峙。~足之势。
    5 大:~族。~臣。~力支持。
    6 正当,正在:~盛[shng]。
    7 比喻量大,形容人说话信誉极高:一言九鼎

    编辑本段详细解释

    〈名〉

    (象形。甲骨文字形,上面的部分像鼎的左右耳及鼎腹,下面像鼎足。本义:古代烹煮用的器物)
    1 同本义[tripod caldron]。盛行于商、周。用于煮盛物品,或置于宗庙作铭功记绩的礼器。统治者亦用作烹人的刑具
     

      

    鼎,三足两耳,和五味之宝器也。《说文
    2 又如:鼎峙(比喻三方并峙,如鼎之三足);鼎铉(指鼎);鼎鼐(鼎、鼐均为古代炊具,用来调和五味。旧时用意比喻宰相治理国家)
    3 比喻帝王[emperor]。如:问鼎;定鼎中原;鼎甲(科举考试殿试名列一甲);鼎命(帝王之位);鼎业(帝王的大业)
    4 指宰相[prime minister]。如:鼎台(宰辅大臣);鼎臣(指宰相)
    5 喻三公、宰辅、重臣之位[high official]。如:鼎辅(三公,宰辅);鼎司(三公的职位)
    6 指国家[state]。如:鼎祚(国祚,国运);鼎运(国运)

    〈形〉

    1 显贵[important]。如:鼎臣(大臣,重臣)
     

      问鼎

    2 显赫,盛大[great]
    高门鼎贵。晋左思《吴都赋》
    3 又如:大名鼎鼎;鼎甲(豪门大族);鼎姓(豪族,大姓);鼎能(大才能。指能力超群,举世无匹);鼎族(巨族,豪门贵族)
    4 三方并立的,如鼎足分立[tripartite]。如:鼎分(三分)

    〈动〉

    变革[change; reformation]
    鼎新麾一举,革故法三章。李商隐《赠送前刘五经映》
    鼎革固天启。徐浩《谒禹庙》

    编辑本段常用词组

    鼎铛玉石dǐngchēng-ysh
    [simile of the luxury and waste] 以鼎为铁锅,以玉为劣石。形容挥霍浪费奢侈腐化的生活
    鼎铛玉石,金块珠砾,弃掷迤逦。唐杜牧阿房宫赋[2]
    鼎鼎dǐngdǐng
    [great;be very important] 盛大
    声名鼎鼎
    鼎沸dǐngfi
     

      变化

    [noisy and confused] 比喻吵闹、乱糟糟的样子。有如锅里的水开了一样
    义兵鼎沸,在于董卓。《后汉书王允传》
    dǐngg
    [change of dynasties] 建立新的,革除旧的。旧时多指改朝换代
    dǐngl
    [your kind help;your kind efforts] 敬辞,大力(帮助)(表示请托或感谢时用)
    多蒙鼎力协助,无任感谢
    dǐngshng
    [in a period of great prosperity;at the height of power and splendour] 正当兴旺发达或强壮
    天子春秋鼎盛。《汉书贾谊传》
    dǐngsh
    [extravagant and luxurious] 列鼎而食,吃饭时排列很多鼎。形容富贵人家豪华奢侈的生活
    钟鸣鼎食之家。唐王勃滕王阁序
    dǐngxīn
    [innovate] 去旧;更新、革新
    方且言其主鼎新文物,教被华夷。陆游入蜀记
    去旧鼎新
    dǐngzh
    [tripartite confrontation;confront each other like a tripod standing on its three legs with tripartite balance of forces]鼎立,三方面并峙。如:三峰鼎峙
    自擅江表,成鼎峙之业。《三国志孙权评传》
    dǐngzh
    [great help] 敬辞,大力协助
     

      变化

    感谢鼎助之恩
    dǐngz
    [three legs of a tripod-three rival powers] 鼎的腿,鼎有三腿。比喻三方面并立的形势
    如此则荆、吴之势强,鼎足之形成矣。《资治通鉴
    足之势dǐngzzhīsh
    (1)[a situation of tripartite confrontation] 形势如同鼎的足,比喻三方对立的形势
    操军破必北还,如此则荆吴之势强,鼎足之势成矣。《三国志诸葛亮传》
    (2)亦说鼎足之形
    dǐngz
    [rich and aristocratical family] 豪门贵族
    君当结媛鼎族,以奉蒸尝。白行简李娃传

    编辑本段英语

    large, three-legged bronze caldron
    词条图册更多图册
    参考资料
    开放分类:
    历史 青铜器 文化 文字 文物

    Ding (vessel)

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    A ding from the late Shang Dynasty.

    A ding (Chinese: ; pinyin: dǐng; WadeGiles: ting) is an ancient Chinese vessel shape, a cauldron with legs, a lid and two facing handles. They were made in two shapes with round vessels having three legs and rectangular ones four and were used for cooking, storage and the preparation of ritual offerings to ancestors. They can be traced back as early as the Erlitou phase of Chinese history. Both ceramic and bronze ding have been found at the Erlitou site, with some ceramic ding dating back to the Xia Dynasty.[1]

    Contents

     [hide

    Function and use[edit]

    Ceramic tripod ding, Han Dynasty

    In Chinese history and culture, possession of one or more ancient dings is often associated with power and dominion over the land. Therefore, the ding is often used as an implicit symbolism for power. The term "inquiring of the ding" (Chinese: 问鼎; pinyin: wn dǐng) is often used interchangeably with the quest for power.

    In the early Bronze Age of China, the use of wine and food vessels served a religious purpose. While ding were the most important food vessels, wine vessels were the more prominent ritual bronzes of this time, likely due to the belief in Shamanism and spirit worship.[2] Ding were used to make ritual sacrifices, both human and animal, to ancestors. They varied in size, but were generally quite large, indicating that whole animals were likely sacrificed.[3] The sacrifices were meant to appease ancestors due to the Shang belief that spirits had the capability to affect the world of the living.[4] If the ancestors were happy, the living would be blessed with good fortune.

    During the Early Western Zhou Dynasty, the people underwent a political and cultural change. King Wu of Zhou believed that the Shang people were drunkards. He believed that their over-consumption of wine led their king to lose the Mandate of Heaven, thus leading to the downfall of the Shang dynasty.[5] Because of this belief, food vessels (and ding in particular) replaced wine vessels in importance. Bronze vessels underwent what has been the "Ritual Revolution."[6] This theory suggests that because there was a change in decor as well as the types and variations of vessels found in tombs, their function shifted from solely religious to a more secular one. Instead of sacrificing food to appease ancestors, the Zhou used ding to show off the status of the deceased to both the living and spirits.[4] Ding symbolized status. For example, emperors were buried with nine ding, feudal lords with seven, ministers with five, and scholar-bureaucrats with three or one.[7] The vessels served as symbols of authority for the elite far into the Warring States period.[8]

    Form and construction[edit]

    Like other ritual bronze shapes, the ding was originally an ordinary ceramic cooking, serving and storage vessel, dating back to the Chinese Neolithic, and ceramic dings continued to be used during and after the period when ceremonial bronze versions were made. From the time of the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE), dings were also cast in bronze as high-status "ritual bronzes", which were often buried in the tomb of their owners for use in the afterlife. This is the period to which the oldest examples of bronze dings date. Inscriptions found on dings and zhongs are used to study bronzeware script.

    Theories on construction[edit]

    The most commonly believed bronze vessel casting process of ancient Chinese vessels is the piece mold process. In this process, a model of the finished vessel, complete with dcor, is made of clay and left to harden, next a negative of this is made by adding a layer of wet clay to the completed model, and allowed to harden to the point where it can still be cut away from it.[9] The model would then be shaved down to form the core, which would eventually become the empty interior of the completed vessel. In the final step, the negative layer was replaced around the core, these were held apart by small bronze and copper pieces called chaplets until the molten bronze could be poured into the opening, and fill the empty space between the two layers. When the bronze had cooled, the clay would be broken away from the vessel, and the process was complete.[10]

    A newer variation on the piece mold process was put forth as a way to explain asymmetrical faces on vessels which, as a rule, should be symmetrical.[11] It was proposed that dcor was not made on a model and then transferred to the outer mold layer, but that the dcor was carved into and built up on the outer, shell layer as the first step.[12] Dcor was added in a variety of ways. The first was simply carving and incising lines into the clay mold layer.[13] The second was to stamp or press an image, inscription, or design into the wet clay.[14] The third was a technique called tube lining. In this technique, soft, liquid clay would be put into a leather bag, and piped onto a surface through some kind of very fine tube made of metal or bone.[15] This technique would have been quite intensive, as it was difficult to maintain constant pressure on the bag, which was needed to create even lines; however, because of certain types of dcor, such as thunder or quill patterns, this would have been the most likely technique used to create low relief design in this process.

    Dcor[edit]

    Several common themes in dcor span across all types of vessel forms, from hu to pan, and guang to jia. Arguably, the most frequent, though also the most intriguing and mysterious, form of dcor is the two eyed motif, often referred to as the taotie. This motif can range from something as simple as two protruding half spheres in an otherwise featureless plane, to highly detailed, mask-like faces with various animal features such as snouts, fangs and horns. In ding vessels, these taotie faces most often appear on the bowl or cauldron portion of the body, but they can also appear on the legs of the vessels.[16]

    Decoration also tends to be used to fill in the background of most vessels, sometimes across the entire body of a vessel, but in other instances only a single band of dcor is used. In these backgrounds, whirl or thunder pattern, a low relief spiral design, is used to fill the space and create a texture across the surface of the vessel.[17]

    In later centuries, fully formed, three dimensional animal figures, such as cows, goats, birds, dragons, and lions, were occasionally included on bronze vessels.[18] Some of these animals were purely decorative, while others also had a functional purpose. In one example, the lid of a Li Ding has three lions laying in relaxed positions, holding rings in their mouths; these rings could have been used to lift the lid off of the vessel when it was hot.[19]

    A final type of dcor, used in most types of vessels, is the inscription. Inscriptions could be used to identify owner, function, they could be poems or even tell stories. In one example, the Shi Wang Ding, the inscription is used to tell the story of why the ding was created, as well as make a wish for the lineage of the family who owned it. The Grand Captain's young son Captain Wang says: "Illustriously august deceased-father Duke Jiu was beautifully capable of making accordant his heart and making wise his virtue, with which he served the past kings, and gained purity without flaw. Wang for the first time has gone on to emulate his august deceased-father, respectfully morning and night taking out and bringing in the king's commands, not daring not to follow through or to manage. Because of this, the king has not forgotten the sagely man's descendant, and has greatly praised his accomplishments and awarded him beneficence. Wang dares in response to extol the Son of Heaven's illustriously fine beneficence, herewith making for my august deceased-father Duke Jiu this offertory caldron; may Captain Wang for ten thousand years have sons' sons and grandsons' grandsons eternally to treasure and use it."[20]

    Historical development[edit]

    Four-legged Shang ding, with a round body, a rather unusual combination

    One of the many types of bronze vessels, the ding vessel had its origins in standard ceramic vessels with the shape of a tripod.[21] A bronze ding vessel from Panlongcheng, Huangpi, Hubei, for example, inherits its shape from Neolithic pottery.[22] Perhaps the most famous ancient dings were the legendary Nine Tripod Cauldrons. This set of bronze vessels is said to have been cast by King Yu of the Xia Dynasty when he divided his territory into the Jiuzhou or Nine Provinces.[23] Later on, possession of all nine was considered a sign of rightful authority over all.[24] The whereabouts of the nine ding are presently unknown, but are said to have been lost during the imperial Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE), after having been passed among various royal dynasties and feudal states.[25]

    Ding vessels were used throughout the Shang and Zhou dynasties and later time periods.[26] Round, tripod ding vessels are emblematic of the Shang and Western and Eastern Zhou periods.[27] Western Zhou ding vessels departed from the Shang aesthetic in terms of their oddly-proportioned legs that were deliberately emphasized through the addition of flanged taotie motifs.[28] In terms of their significance throughout history, bronze vessels came to assume a more political role in later dynasties than in the Shang period.[29] Inscriptions cast on Western Zhou ding vessels, for example, commemorate political events and record gifts between monarchs and subjects.[30] The Da Ke ding records a royal award to Ke of royal estate, which is seen as evidence of the breaking up of the estates of old families and their distribution to new families in the transition between different time periods.[31]

    In Late Western Zhou, sets of ding and gui were used to indicate rank; a feudal lord would be entitled to nine ding and six gui, while lesser officials were entitled to a smaller number of vessels.[32] Likewise, late Zhou bronzes were often very large, suggesting corresponding wealth.[33] Early Eastern Zhou bronzes descended directly from those of Western Zhou.[34] In later times, in the middle Warring States period, the three-legged ding would be one of the most popular ceramic forms imitating bronzes.[35]

    In Western China in an area controlled by Qin, small, shallow tripod ding vessels were produced.[36] For these vessels, groups of ceramic and bronze vessels buried together reveal that Western Zhou vessel types continued to exist over different time periods.[37] Tombs at Baoji and Hu Xian, for example, contain sets of ding among others that are shallow and with cabriole legs.[38] The role of ding vessels in the Zhou period continued, as Qin cemeteries contained ding vessels that expressed rank.[39]

    Food vessels such as fu, gui, and dui that were popular in Zhou times disappeared by the Han dynasty, during which the ding, zhong, hu, and fang were the main vessel types used.[40] In Western and Eastern Han, the ding was one of the most common bronze-derived shapes in pottery.[41]

    Today, the architecture of the Shanghai Museum is intended to resemble a bronze ding.

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Fong, Wen (1980). Great Bronze Age of China. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. p. 2. ISBN 0-87099-226-0.  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
    2. ^ Fong, Wen (1980). Great Bronze Age of China. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 0-87099-226-0.  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
    3. ^ Allan, Sarah (1991). The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art, and Cosmos in Early China. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 144145. ISBN 0-7914-0459-5. 
    4. ^ a b Fong, Wen (1980). Great Bronze Age of China. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. p. 14. ISBN 0-87099-226-0.  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
    5. ^ Fong, Wen (1980). Great Bronze Age of China. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. p. 12. ISBN 0-87099-226-0.  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
    6. ^ Jian ming, Chen; Jay Xu, Fu Juliang (2011). Along the Yangzi River: Regional Culture of the Bronze Age from Hunan. New York: Art Media Resources, Ltd. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-9774054-6-6. 
    7. ^ Jian ming, Chen; Jay Xu, Fu Juliang (2011). Along the Yangzi River: Regional Culture of the Bronze Age from Hunan. New York: Art Media Resources, Ltd. pp. 2324. ISBN 978-0-9774054-6-6. 
    8. ^ Lawton, Thomas (1982). Chinese Art of the Warring States Period: Change and Continuity 480-222 B.C. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-934686-39-6. 
    9. ^ Fairbank, Wilma (1962). "Piece-Mold Craftsmanship and Shang Bronze Design". Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 16: 913. Retrieved 12/5/2012. 
    10. ^ Nickel, Lukas (2006). "Imperfect Symmetry: Re-Thinking Bronze Casting Technology in Ancient China". Artibus Asiae 66 (1): 33. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 
    11. ^ Nickel, Lukas (2006). "Imperfect Symmetry: Re-Thinking Bronze Casting Technology in Ancient China". Artibus Asiae 66 (1): 67. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 
    12. ^ Nickel, Lukas (2006). "Imperfect Symmetry: Re-Thinking Bronze Casting Technology in Ancient China". Artibus Asiae 66 (1): 67. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 
    13. ^ Nickel, Lukas (2006). "Imperfect Symmetry: Re-Thinking Bronze Casting Technology in Ancient China". Artibus Asiae 66 (1): 14. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 
    14. ^ Nickel, Lukas (2006). "Imperfect Symmetry: Re-Thinking Bronze Casting Technology in Ancient China". Artibus Asiae 66 (1): 32. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 
    15. ^ Nickel, Lukas (2006). "Imperfect Symmetry: Re-Thinking Bronze Casting Technology in Ancient China". Artibus Asiae 66 (1): 1516. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 
    16. ^ Delbanco, Dawn Ho (1983). Art From Ritual: Ancient Chinese Bronze Vessels from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Washington D.C.: The Arthur M. Sackler Foundation. pp. 7275. ISBN 0-916724-54-9. 
    17. ^ Delbanco, Dawn Ho (1983). Art From Ritual: Ancient Chinese Bronze Vessels from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Washington D.C.: The Arthur M. Sackler Foundation. pp. 102107. ISBN 0-916724-54-9. 
    18. ^ Delbanco, Dawn Ho (1983). Art From Ritual: Ancient Chinese Bronze Vessels from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Washington D.C.: The Arthur M. Sackler Foundation. pp. 132133. ISBN 0-916724-54-9. 
    19. ^ Delbanco, Dawn Ho (1983). Art From Ritual: Ancient Chinese Bronze Vessels from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Washington D.C.: The Arthur M. Sackler Foundation. p. 140. ISBN 0-916724-54-9. 
    20. ^ Xu, Jay (2006). "Shi Wang Ding". Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies. Notable Acquisitions at The Art Institute of Chicago 32 (1): 3031, 95. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 
    21. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 11.
    22. ^ Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, eds., The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 145.
    23. ^ Art: The Great Bronze Age of China
    24. ^ "A Brief Introduction of the Campaign of Awarding", 2006-7-6
    25. ^ Food for Thought: Archeological Findings Point to Chinese Dietary Culture
    26. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 97.
    27. ^ Xiaoneng Yang, ed., The Golden Age of Chinese Archaeology: Celebrated Discoveries from the Peoples Republic of China (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1999), 164.
    28. ^ Dawn Ho Delbanco, Art from Ritual: Ancient Chinese Bronze Vessels from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections (Cambridge and Washington D.C.: Fogg Museum and Sackler Foundation, 1983), 102.
    29. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 35.
    30. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 35.
    31. ^ Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, eds., The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 328.
    32. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 41.
    33. ^ Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, eds., The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 440.
    34. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 47.
    35. ^ Michael Sullivan, The Arts of China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 56.
    36. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 85.
    37. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 85.
    38. ^ Jessica Rawson, Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual (London: British Museum, 1987), 85.
    39. ^ Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, eds., The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 489.
    40. ^ Zongshu Wang, Han Civilization (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 102.
    41. ^ Zongshu Wang, Han Civilization (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 142.

    Sources[edit]

    • Allan, Sarah (1991). The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art, and Cosmos in Early China. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0459-5. 
    • Delbanco, Dawn Ho. Art from Ritual: Ancient Chinese Bronze Vessels from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Cambridge and Washington D.C.: Fogg Museum and Sackler Foundation, 1983.
    • Fairbank, Wilma (1962). "Piece-Mold Craftsmanship and Shang Bronze Design". Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 16: 815. Retrieved 12/5/2012. 
    • Fong, Wen (1980). Great Bronze Age of China. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-87099-226-0.  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
    • Jian ming, Chen; Jay Xu, Fu Juliang (2011). Along the Yangzi River: Regional Culture of the Bronze Age from Hunan. New York: Art Media Resources, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9774054-6-6. 
    • Lawton, Thomas (1982). Chinese Art of the Warring States Period: Change and Continuity 480-222 B.C. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 047-001-00150 Check |isbn= value (help). 
    • Loewe, Michael, and Edward L. Shaughnessy, eds. The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
    • Nickel, Lukas (2006). "Imperfect Symmetry: Re-Thinking Bronze Casting Technology in Ancient China". Artibus Asiae 66 (1): 539. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 
    • Rawson, Jessica. Chinese Bronzes: Art and Ritual. London: British Museum, 1987.
    • Sullivan, Michael. The Arts of China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.
    • Wang, Zongshu. Han Civilization. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
    • Yang, Xiaoneng, ed. The Golden Age of Chinese Archaeology: Celebrated Discoveries from the Peoples Republic of China. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1999.
    • Xu, Jay (2006). "Shi Wang Ding". Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies. Notable Acquisitions at The Art Institute of Chicago 32 (1): 3031, 95. Retrieved 11/9/2012. 

    Further reading[edit]

    • Allen, Anthony J. Allen's Authentication of Ancient Chinese Bronzes. Auckland: Allen's Enterprises, 2001.
    • Lawton, Thomas, ed. New Perspectives on Chu Culture during the Eastern Zhou Period. Washington, D.C.: Sackler Gallery, 1991.
    • Lienert, Ursula (1979). Typology of the TING in the Shang Dynasty: A tentative Chronology of the Yin-hs Period. Germany: Wiesbaden: Steiner. ISBN 3-515-02808-0. 
    • Rawson, Jessica. Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties. London: British Museum Press, 1996.
    • Yang, Xiaoneng, ed. New Perspectives on China's Past: Chinese Archaeology in the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.

    External links[edit]

    Nine Tripod Cauldrons

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    A tripod cauldron or ding from the late Shang Dynasty

    According to legend the Nine Tripod Cauldrons (Chinese: ; pinyin: Jĭu Dĭng) were created following the foundation of the Xia Dynasty (c. 2200 BCE) by Yu the Great, using tribute metal presented by the governors of the Nine Provinces of ancient China.

    At the time of the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) tripod cauldrons came to symbolize the power and authority of the ruling dynasty with strict regulations imposed as to their use. Members of the gentry scholarly sh (士) class were permitted to use one or three cauldrons, zhū hu (诸侯/諸侯), the rulers of vassal states seven, difu (大夫) or ministers of state five whilst only the Son of Heaven (天子), the sovereign, was entitled to use nine.[1] The use of the nine tripod cauldrons to offer ritual sacrifices to the ancestors from heaven and earth was a major ceremonial occasion so that by natural progression the ding came to symbolize national political power[2] and later to be regarded as a National Treasure. Sources state that two years after the fall of the Zhou Dynasty at the hands of what would become the Qin Dynasty the nine tripod cauldrons were taken from the Zhou royal palace and moved westward to the Qin capital at Xianyang.[3][4] However, by the time Qin Shi Huang had eliminated the other six Warring States to become the first emperor of China in 221 BCE, the whereabouts of the nine tripod cauldrons were unknown. Sima Qian records in his Records of the Grand Historian that they were lost in the Si River (泗水) near Pencheng (彭城) to where Qin Shi Huang later dispatched a thousand men to search for the cauldrons but to no avail.[3]

    Contents

     [hide

    Origin[edit]

    The Records of the Grand Historian recount that once Yu the Great had finished taming the floods that once engulfed the land, he divided the territory into the Nine Provinces and collected bronze in tribute from each one. Thereafter he cast the metal into nine large tripod cauldrons.[5] Legend says that each ding weighed around 30,000 catties equivalent to 7.5 tons. However, the Zuo Zhuan or Commentary of Zuo, states that the nine tripod cauldrons were cast by Yu the Great's son, Qi of Xia, the second Xia Emperor, and it was he who received the tributes of bronze from the Nine Provinces.[6][7]

    Vicissitudes of the cauldrons[edit]

    After Tang of Shang overthrew Jie of Xia, the nine tripod cauldrons were moved to the Shang capital at Yan (奄). Later, when the Shang king Pan Geng moved his capital to Yin (殷), the cauldrons again went with him. Following the overthrow of the Shang Dynasty by the Zhou Dynasty, the new King Wu of Zhou put the nine tripod cauldrons on public display for the first time.[8]

    When King Cheng of Zhou ascended the throne, the Duke of Zhou built the eastern capital of Luoyi (later Luoyang), he moved the cauldrons there, at the same time asking King Cheng to carry out their ritual installation in the settlement's Ancestral Hall. (太廟)[8][9]

    The power of the Zhou royal family began to decline at the start of the Eastern Zhou Period (771 BCE) with each vassal state clamoring for kingship. At the time of King Ding of Zhou (r. 605-506 BCE), Duke Zhuang of Chu inquired for the first time regarding the "weight of the cauldrons" (問鼎之輕重) only to be rebuffed by the Zhou minister Wangsun Man (王孫滿). Asking such a question was at that time a direct challenge to the power of the reigning dynasty. King Ling of Chu (r. 540 - 529 BCE) later again inquired of the cauldrons but was unsuccessful due to unrest sweeping the country[10] During the reign of King Huiwen of Qin (r.338 - 311 BCE), the strategist Zhang Yi formulated a plan by which he hoped to seize the Nine Tripod Cauldrons and thus gain command of the other Zhou vassal states.[11] King Qingxiang of Chu (楚頃襄王), along with the king of the State of Qi also sought possession of the treasures as did the states of Wei and Han. The last Eastern Zhou monarch King Nan of Zhou (314-256 BCE) dealt with all these rival claimants by playing them off against other and thus kept possession of the cauldrons.

    Loss and recasting[edit]

    After the overthrow of Zhou and the foundation of the new Qin Dynasty, the Nine Tripod Cauldrons disappeared. Theories as to their fate abound[3][4] with no clear agreement amongst scholars. Amongst these theories are claims that the cauldrons were:

    According to historical records, both Qin Shi Huang[3] and Emperor Wen of Han (r. 180-157 BCE)[12] searched for the nine tripod cauldrons in the Si River but with no success.

    Later emperors time and again recast the cauldrons, the most well known examples being Wu Zetian in 696 CE [13] and the two recastings by Song Dynasty Huizong Emperor in 1105 CE.[14]

    In 2006, the National Museum of China in Beijing cast Nine Tripod Cauldrons which are now on permanent display as a tourist attraction.[15]

    Cultural influence[edit]

    Baopuzi mentions "Records on the Nine Cauldrons" (Jiu ding ji 九鼎記), an alleged description of the vessels commenting on their protective function.

    In all Chinese speaking societies, if someone commented on someone's words as having the weight of nine tripod cauldrons (一言九鼎), this was a great compliment to the person. It meant that the person was very trustworthy and would never break their promises.

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    This article is partly based on a translation of 九鼎 九鼎 in the Chinese Wikipedia

    1. ^ Gongyang Zhuan's Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals - 天子九鼎,诸侯七卿大夫五,元士三/天子九鼎,諸侯七,卿大夫五,元士三。
    2. ^ Strategies of the Warring States, Scroll 1 - Eastern Zhou The Qin State Dispatched Troops to the Borders of Zhou to Demand the Nine Tripod Cauldrons (秦兴师临周求九鼎/秦興師臨周求九鼎).
    3. ^ a b c d Records of the Grand Historian - Scroll 28
    4. ^ a b Lunheng - Scroll 26
    5. ^ Records of the Grand Historian - Scroll 28 "黃帝作寶鼎三,象天地人。禹收九牧之金,鑄九鼎"
    6. ^ Zuo Zhuan, Third year of Duke Xuan
    7. ^ Records of the Grand Historian Chu Family Records (楚世家)
    8. ^ a b Records of the Grand Historian Scroll 4, Zhou Biography
    9. ^ According to an annotation to the text of Mozi by his disciple Geng Zhuzi (耕柱子), After the Xia Dynasty lost the cauldrons, the Yin (Shang) Dynasty received them, when they lost them, the Zhou Dynasty received them "墨子耕注:夏后氏失之,殷人受之;殷人失之,周人受之。夏后、殷、周之相受也."
    10. ^ Records of the Grand Historian - Chu Family Records
    11. ^ Strategies of the Warring States - Scroll 3
    12. ^ Lunheng - Scroll 13
    13. ^ Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government Scroll 206
    14. ^ Book of Song Scroll 66
    15. ^ (in Japanese) Treasures of the Zhou Royal Family on Display in Beijing

     

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